# Chapter 4 : Operators in R

## Type of Operators

Operators in R can be majorly classified into four broader categories.

Let’s understand them one by one.

### Arithmetic Operators

+ , - , * , / , %% , %/% , ^ , ** are all arithmetic operators in R.

+ Operator is used for addition
- Operator is used for subtraction
* Operator is used for multiplication
/ Operator is used for division
%% Operator is used to find the remainder
%/% Operator is used to find the quotient
^ or ** Operator is used for finding the power of a number.

Let’s see some examples where these operators are used.

#### Example 1: Adding two numbers 2 and 3 using + Arithmetic operator.

2 + 3
 5

#### Example 2: Adding three numbers 12, 15 and 23 using + Arithmetic operator.

12 + 15 + 23
 50

#### Example 3: Adding three numbers 225, 432 and 21 using + Arithmetic operator.

225 + 432 + 21
 678

#### Example 4: Subtracting 2 from 3 using - Arithmetic operator.

3 - 2
 1

#### Example 5: Subtracting 12 from 15 using - Arithmetic operator.

15 - 12 
 3

#### Example 6: Multiplying 23 by 32

23 * 32
 736

#### Example 7: Multiplying 223 by 192

223 * 192
 42816

#### Example 8: Dividing 32 by 4

32 / 4
 8

#### Example 9: Dividing 24364 by 4

24364 / 4
 6091

#### Example 10: Finding remainder when we divide 12 by 5.

12 %% 5
 2

#### Example 11: Finding remainder when we divide 231 by 2.

231 %% 2
 1

#### Example 12: Finding quotient when we divide 12 by 5.

12 %/% 5
 2

#### Example 13: Finding quotient when we divide 231 by 2.

231 %/% 2
 115

#### Example 14: Finding 125.

12^5
 248832

Alternate method,

12**5
 248832

#### Example 15: Finding 223.

22^3
 10648

Alternate method,

22**3
 10648

### Assignment Operator

<- is the assignment operator in R. It is actually equivalent to equal to sign =. In general, we say a = 2, which means we are assigning a value 2 to a variable a. In R, we write a <- 2 instead of a = 2.

#### Example 16: Create a variable b and assign a value 15 to it, using assignment operator.

b <- 15

#### Example 17: Create a variable c and assign a value -25 to it, using assignment operator.

c <- -25

### Relational Operators

We use relational operators to check the relation between two or more variables. Below mentioned are some examples of relational operators which we use is R. #### Example 18: Create two variables a=5 and b=3 and check the relationship using relational operators.

Assigning values to variable a and b as given in question.

a <- 5
b <- 3

Checking whether a is less than b or not.

a < b 
 FALSE

Checking whether a is greater than b or not.

a > b
 TRUE

Checking whether a is less or equal to b or not.

a <= b
 FALSE

Checking whether a is greater or equal to b or not.

a >= b
 TRUE

Checking whether a is equal to b or not.

a == b
 FALSE

Checking whether a is not equal to b or not.

a != b
 TRUE

Now, let’s see the summary of what we have done in the below snapshot. ### Logical Operators

These operators are used to perform Boolean expression like AND and OR.

We use & symbol for AND and | symbol for OR. #### Example 19: Create two variables a=5 and b=3 and check the below relationship using logical operators.1. a==5&b==32. a==4&b==33.a==4&b==24. a==5&b==25. a==5|b==36. a==4|b==37.a==4|b==28. a==5|b==2

Assigning values to variable a and b as given in question.

a <- 5
b <- 3

Solution 1: Checking a==5&b==3

a==5 will return a value TRUE
b==3 will also return a value TRUE
We know, TRUE&TRUE is TRUE

a==5&b==3
 TRUE

Solution 2: Checking a==4&b==3

a==4 will return a value FALSE
b==3 will also return a value TRUE
We know, FALSE&TRUE is FALSE

a==4&b==3
 FALSE

Solution 3: Checking a==4&b==2

a==4 will return a value FALSE
b==2 will also return a value FALSE
We know, FALSE&FALSE is FALSE

a==4&b==2
 FALSE

Solution 4: Checking a==5&b==2

a==4 will return a value TRUE
b==2 will also return a value FALSE
We know, TRUE&FALSE is FALSE

a==5&b==2
 FALSE

Solution 5: Checking a==5|b==3

a==5 will return a value TRUE
b==3 will also return a value TRUE
We know, TRUE|TRUE is TRUE

a==5|b==3
 TRUE

Solution 6: Checking a==4&b==3

a==4 will return a value FALSE
b==3 will also return a value TRUE
We know, FALSE|TRUE is TRUE

a==4|b==3
 TRUE

Solution 7: Checking a==4&b==2

a==4 will return a value FALSE
b==2 will also return a value FALSE
We know, FALSE|FALSE is FALSE

a==4|b==2
 FALSE

Solution 8: Checking a==5|b==2

a==4 will return a value TRUE
b==2 will also return a value FALSE
We know, TRUE|FALSE is TRUE

a==5|b==2
 TRUE